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About Assam Polity In English Language

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Assam Polity: A Comprehensive Overview


Assam, a state in northeastern India, boasts a unique political history and a vibrant polity. It is one of the “Seven Sisters” states of the region and shares its borders with six other states and two neighboring countries, Bhutan and Bangladesh. The state’s political landscape has evolved significantly over the years, shaped by its rich cultural heritage, ethnic diversity, and complex historical dynamics. In this article, we will delve into various aspects of Assam polity, including its historical background, administrative setup, key political parties, electoral system, and significant events.

  1. Historical Background:

Assam’s political history can be traced back to ancient times when various kingdoms and dynasties ruled the region. Notably, the Ahom Kingdom was the most influential in shaping Assam’s political landscape for several centuries. The British East India Company arrived in the early 19th century, and Assam became a part of British India. It was administered as a province under the British colonial rule.

  1. Administrative Setup:

Post-independence, Assam became a separate state within the Indian Union on 15th August 1947. It has a multi-tiered administrative structure, consisting of districts, subdivisions, and blocks. The state is further divided into autonomous district councils, especially in areas with significant tribal populations, such as the Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC), Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council (KAAC), and Dima Hasao Autonomous District Council (DHADC).

  1. Political Parties:

Assam is home to several prominent political parties, each representing different ideologies and constituencies. Some of the key political parties in the state include:

a. Indian National Congress (INC): One of the oldest and most influential parties in India, the INC has had a significant presence in Assam’s politics. It has ruled the state at various points in history.

b. Asom Gana Parishad (AGP): Founded in 1985, the AGP was formed as a regional party with the primary goal of safeguarding the interests of Assamese-speaking people and addressing the issue of illegal immigration from Bangladesh.

c. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP): A national party with a strong base in Assam, the BJP rose to prominence in the state by focusing on issues like illegal immigration and development.

d. All India United Democratic Front (AIUDF): The AIUDF is a party primarily representing the interests of Muslim minorities in Assam. It has been a significant player in state politics since its formation in 2005.

e. Bodoland People’s Front (BPF): The BPF represents the Bodo community and has a stronghold in areas with a significant Bodo population, especially the Bodoland Territorial Region.

f. Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI-M) and Communist Party of India (CPI): These left-leaning parties have a limited presence in the state but have played roles in coalition politics.

  1. Electoral System:

Assam follows a unicameral legislature system, consisting of the Legislative Assembly. The state sends 14 members to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House of Parliament) and 14 members to the Lok Sabha (Lower House of Parliament). The Legislative Assembly consists of 126 elected members and one nominated member.

Assam has a diverse electorate, with various ethnic, linguistic, and religious communities. The electoral process has been crucial in shaping the state’s political dynamics. Political parties often build alliances and coalitions to gain power, reflecting the need to appeal to diverse voter bases.

  1. Major Political Events:

a. Assam Movement (1979-1985): The Assam Movement, also known as the “Anti-Foreigner Movement,” was a mass movement against illegal immigration from Bangladesh. It demanded the detection and deportation of illegal immigrants and the implementation of the Assam Accord.

b. Assam Accord (1985): Following the Assam Movement, the Assam Accord was signed between the Government of India and the leaders of the movement. It outlined measures to address the issue of illegal immigration and provide safeguards for the rights of indigenous Assamese people.

c. Bodo Agitation and Bodoland Territorial Council: The Bodo Movement sought to address the political and developmental aspirations of the Bodo community. As a result, the Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) was established, granting some autonomy to the region.

d. 2019 NRC (National Register of Citizens) Exercise: The NRC exercise aimed to identify Indian citizens and exclude illegal immigrants. It created significant debates and anxieties, affecting millions of people.

  1. Challenges and Future Prospects:

Assam faces several challenges in its political landscape. Illegal immigration remains a contentious issue, leading to social tensions and political maneuvering. Additionally, the state faces development disparities, insurgency, and environmental concerns.

To address these challenges and foster positive prospects, Assam needs strong and inclusive leadership, equitable economic development, the protection of indigenous rights, and the promotion of social harmony.


Assam’s polity is a vibrant and dynamic landscape that reflects the complexities of its history and diverse culture. From ancient kingdoms to British colonial rule and post-independence democracy, the state has witnessed significant political changes. Assam’s political journey is marked by regionalism, identity politics, and the struggle to address various socio-economic challenges. As the state moves forward, finding a balance between regional aspirations and national integration remains a crucial task for its political leaders and citizens alike.

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